1. In context of System security (not doors in Physical Security) does fail-safe system = fail-secure system? i.e. program execution is terminated, and the system is allowed to fail in a secure manner and protected from being compromised.
2. Is my understanding correct that
The label:TOP SECRET [VENUS ALPHA]
is "higher" than either of the labels:
TOP SECRET [VENUS]
TOP SECRET [ALPHA]
SECRET [VENUS ALPHA]
3. Is my understanding correct that Cryptography consists of encryption and hashing algorithms and both provide access control as a service?
4. Please clarify which OSI layer do the following work on: