[CCCure CISSP] Qs9 Cryptography: cccure QuizEngn doubts

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[CCCure CISSP] Qs9 Cryptography: cccure QuizEngn doubts

Amlan Deb
Hello everyone,
 
I have some doubts regarding some cccure Quiz questions and concepts mentioned below. Would really appreciate it if you could take out some time and help me with them. Request you to please provide a quick reply as I need to appear for the exam in the month of July.
 
Thanks,
Amlan

Doubt#9
========

31. 

1.     Question: 277 | Difficulty: 3/5 | Relevancy: 3/3

Which of the following cryptographic attacks describes when the attacker has a copy of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext?

o     known plaintext

o      brute force

o      ciphertext only

o      chosen plaintext

You did not provide any answer to this question. Please review details below.

The correct answer is: Known-Plaintext attack

The goal to this type of attack is to find the cryptographic key that was used to encrypt the message. Once the key has been found, the attacker would then be able to decrypt all messages that had been encrypted using that key.

The known-plaintext attack (KPA) or crib is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has samples of both the plaintext and its encrypted version (ciphertext), and is at liberty to make use of them to reveal further secret information such as secret keys and code books. The term "crib" originated at Bletchley Park, the British World War II decryption operation

In cryptography, a brute force attack or exhaustive key search is a strategy that can in theory be used against any encrypted data by an attacker who is unable to take advantage of any weakness in an encryption system that would otherwise make his task easier. It involves systematically checking all possible keys until the correct key is found. In the worst case, this would involve traversing the entire key space, also called  search space.

In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.

The attack is completely successful if the corresponding plaintexts can be deduced, or even better, the key. The ability to obtain any information at all about the underlying plaintext is still considered a success. For example, if an adversary is sending ciphertext continuously to maintain traffic-flow security, it would be very useful to be able to distinguish real messages from nulls. Even making an informed guess of the existence of real messages would facilitate traffic analysis.

In the history of cryptography, early ciphers, implemented using pen-and-paper, were routinely broken using ciphertexts alone. Cryptographers developed statistical techniques for attacking ciphertext, such as frequency analysis. Mechanical encryption devices such as Enigma made these attacks much more difficult (although, historically, Polish cryptographers were able to mount a successful ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of the Enigma by exploiting an insecure protocol for indicating the message settings).

Every modern cipher attempts to provide protection against ciphertext-only attacks. The vetting process for a new cipher design standard usually takes many years and includes exhaustive testing of large quantities of ciphertext for any statistical departure from random noise. See: Advanced Encryption Standard process.  Also, the field of steganography evolved, in part, to develop methods like mimic functions that allow one piece of data to adopt the statistical profile of another. Nonetheless poor cipher usage or reliance on home-grown proprietary algorithms that have not been subject to thorough scrutiny has resulted in many computer-age encryption systems that are still subject to ciphertext-only attack. Examples include:

o Early versions of Microsoft's PPTP virtual private network software used the same RC4 key for the sender and the receiver (later versions had other problems). In any case where a stream cipher like RC4 is used twice with the same key it is open to ciphertext-only attack. See: stream cipher attack

o Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), the first security protocol for Wi-Fi, proved vulnerable to several attacks, most of them ciphertext-only.

A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. The goal of the attack is to gain some further information which reduces the security of the encryption scheme. In the worst case, a chosen-plaintext attack could reveal the scheme's secret key.

This appears, at first glance, to be an unrealistic model; it would certainly be unlikely that an attacker could persuade a human cryptographer to encrypt large amounts of plaintexts of the attacker's choosing. Modern cryptography, on the other hand, is implemented in software or hardware and is used for a diverse range of applications; for many cases, a chosen-plaintext attack is often very feasible. Chosen-plaintext attacks become extremely important in the context of public key cryptography, where the encryption key is public and attackers can encrypt any plaintext they choose.

Any cipher that can prevent chosen-plaintext attacks is then also guaranteed to be secure against known-plaintext and ciphertext-only attacks; this is a conservative approach to security.

Two forms of chosen-plaintext attack can be distinguished:

o Batch chosen-plaintext attack, where the cryptanalyst chooses all plaintexts before any of them are encrypted. This is often the meaning of an unqualified use of "chosen-plaintext attack".

o Adaptive chosen-plaintext attack, where the cryptanalyst makes a series of interactive queries, choosing subsequent plaintexts based on the information from the previous encryptions.

References:

Source: TIPTON, Harold, Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK (2007), page 271.

and

Wikipedia at the following links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chosen-plaintext_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Known-plaintext_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciphertext-only_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brute_force_attack 

 

Edited by Mike Young, CISSP, on July 9, 2007

Contributor: Eric Yandell

Covered topic: <A title="Cryptography attacks and countermeasures - Cryptography is the mathematical science that deals with transforming data to render its meaning unintelligible, prevent its undetected alteration, or prevent its unauthorized use. Different types of attacks that" href="javascript:void(0)">Cryptography attacks and countermeasures

 

My doubt: 

#1: Please explain why option ‘D’ cannot be the answer?

#2: Are all these attacks (known plain text, chosen plaintext, ciphertext only, chosen ciphertext) only possible with Public Key Encryption Algorithm?

 

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Re: [CCCure CISSP] Qs9 Cryptography: cccure QuizEngn doubts

clementdupuis
Administrator
Good day Amlan,

D is eliminated simply because the questions talks about a one to one mapping between Plaintext and Ciphertext.   The word Choosen in attack names indicates it is done over and over again.

These attack can be against substitution cipher, code book mode, streams, and not only against Public Key crypto.

Best regards

Clement




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On Sun, Jun 2, 2013 at 4:28 PM, Amlan Deb <[hidden email]> wrote:
Hello everyone,
 
I have some doubts regarding some cccure Quiz questions and concepts mentioned below. Would really appreciate it if you could take out some time and help me with them. Request you to please provide a quick reply as I need to appear for the exam in the month of July.
 
Thanks,
Amlan

Doubt#9
========

31. 

1.     Question: 277 | Difficulty: 3/5 | Relevancy: 3/3

Which of the following cryptographic attacks describes when the attacker has a copy of the plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext?

o     known plaintext

o      brute force

o      ciphertext only

o      chosen plaintext

You did not provide any answer to this question. Please review details below.

Details

Submit a comment on this question

The correct answer is: Known-Plaintext attack

The goal to this type of attack is to find the cryptographic key that was used to encrypt the message. Once the key has been found, the attacker would then be able to decrypt all messages that had been encrypted using that key.

The known-plaintext attack (KPA) or crib is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker has samples of both the plaintext and its encrypted version (ciphertext), and is at liberty to make use of them to reveal further secret information such as secret keys and code books. The term "crib" originated at Bletchley Park, the British World War II decryption operation

In cryptography, a brute force attack or exhaustive key search is a strategy that can in theory be used against any encrypted data by an attacker who is unable to take advantage of any weakness in an encryption system that would otherwise make his task easier. It involves systematically checking all possible keys until the correct key is found. In the worst case, this would involve traversing the entire key space, also called  search space.

In cryptography, a ciphertext-only attack (COA) or known ciphertext attack is an attack model for cryptanalysis where the attacker is assumed to have access only to a set of ciphertexts.

The attack is completely successful if the corresponding plaintexts can be deduced, or even better, the key. The ability to obtain any information at all about the underlying plaintext is still considered a success. For example, if an adversary is sending ciphertext continuously to maintain traffic-flow security, it would be very useful to be able to distinguish real messages from nulls. Even making an informed guess of the existence of real messages would facilitate traffic analysis.

In the history of cryptography, early ciphers, implemented using pen-and-paper, were routinely broken using ciphertexts alone. Cryptographers developed statistical techniques for attacking ciphertext, such as frequency analysis. Mechanical encryption devices such as Enigma made these attacks much more difficult (although, historically, Polish cryptographers were able to mount a successful ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of the Enigma by exploiting an insecure protocol for indicating the message settings).

Every modern cipher attempts to provide protection against ciphertext-only attacks. The vetting process for a new cipher design standard usually takes many years and includes exhaustive testing of large quantities of ciphertext for any statistical departure from random noise. See: Advanced Encryption Standard process.  Also, the field of steganography evolved, in part, to develop methods like mimic functions that allow one piece of data to adopt the statistical profile of another. Nonetheless poor cipher usage or reliance on home-grown proprietary algorithms that have not been subject to thorough scrutiny has resulted in many computer-age encryption systems that are still subject to ciphertext-only attack. Examples include:

o Early versions of Microsoft's PPTP virtual private network software used the same RC4 key for the sender and the receiver (later versions had other problems). In any case where a stream cipher like RC4 is used twice with the same key it is open to ciphertext-only attack. See: stream cipher attack

o Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), the first security protocol for Wi-Fi, proved vulnerable to several attacks, most of them ciphertext-only.

A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. The goal of the attack is to gain some further information which reduces the security of the encryption scheme. In the worst case, a chosen-plaintext attack could reveal the scheme's secret key.

This appears, at first glance, to be an unrealistic model; it would certainly be unlikely that an attacker could persuade a human cryptographer to encrypt large amounts of plaintexts of the attacker's choosing. Modern cryptography, on the other hand, is implemented in software or hardware and is used for a diverse range of applications; for many cases, a chosen-plaintext attack is often very feasible. Chosen-plaintext attacks become extremely important in the context of public key cryptography, where the encryption key is public and attackers can encrypt any plaintext they choose.

Any cipher that can prevent chosen-plaintext attacks is then also guaranteed to be secure against known-plaintext and ciphertext-only attacks; this is a conservative approach to security.

Two forms of chosen-plaintext attack can be distinguished:

o Batch chosen-plaintext attack, where the cryptanalyst chooses all plaintexts before any of them are encrypted. This is often the meaning of an unqualified use of "chosen-plaintext attack".

o Adaptive chosen-plaintext attack, where the cryptanalyst makes a series of interactive queries, choosing subsequent plaintexts based on the information from the previous encryptions.

References:

Source: TIPTON, Harold, Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK (2007), page 271.

and

Wikipedia at the following links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chosen-plaintext_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Known-plaintext_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciphertext-only_attack

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brute_force_attack 

 

Edited by Mike Young, CISSP, on July 9, 2007

Contributor: Eric Yandell

Covered topic: Cryptography attacks and countermeasures

 

My doubt: 

#1: Please explain why option ‘D’ cannot be the answer?

#2: Are all these attacks (known plain text, chosen plaintext, ciphertext only, chosen ciphertext) only possible with Public Key Encryption Algorithm?

 


_______________________________________________
You can find the list archive at:
http://cissp-study.3965.n7.nabble.com/

CISSPstudy mailing list
[hidden email]

To UNSUBSCRIBE, SUBSCRIBE, or MANAGE your accout visit the link below:
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_______________________________________________
You can find the list archive at:
http://cissp-study.3965.n7.nabble.com/

CISSPstudy mailing list
[hidden email]

To UNSUBSCRIBE, SUBSCRIBE, or MANAGE your accout visit the link below:
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CLO @ SecureNinja.Com